Why Sitting May Be Bad for Your Heart
Sitting quietly for extended periods of time could be hurting your heart, according to a surprising new study. It finds that the more people sit, the greater the likelihood that they will show signs of injury to their heart muscles.
We all have heard by now that sitting for hours on end is unhealthy, even if we also occasionally exercise. People who sit for more than about nine or 10 hours each day — a group that includes many of us who work in offices — are prone to developing diabetes, heart disease and other problems, and most of these risks remain relatively high, even if we exercise.
Excessive sitting also has been associated with heart failure, a condition in which the heart becomes progressively weaker and unable to pump enough blood to keep the rest of the body oxygenated and well. But how sitting, which seems to demand so little from the heart, could be linked to heart failure, a condition in which the heart cannot respond adequately to exertion, has been unclear.
So recently a group of cardiologists from around the world began to wonder about troponins.
Troponins are proteins produced by cardiac-muscle cells when they are hurt or dying. A heart attack releases a sudden tsunami of troponins into the bloodstream.
But even slightly elevated troponin levels, lower than those involved in heart attacks, are worrisome if they persist, most cardiologists believe. Chronically high troponin levels indicate that something is going wrong inside the heart muscle and that damage is occurring and accruing there. If the damage is not halted or slowed, it could eventually result in heart failure.
No research, however, had ever examined whether sitting was associated with high troponin levels.
So for the new study, published in Circulation, the researchers turned to existing data from the Dallas Heart Study, a large, ongoing examination of cardiac health among a group of ethnically diverse men and women, overseen by the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The study’s participants had completed cardiac testing, given blood samples and health information and worn activity trackers for a week.
因此，在《循环》杂志(Circulation)上发表的一项新研究中，研究人员研究了达拉斯心脏研究(Dallas Heart Study)的现有数据。该研究是德克萨斯大学西南医学中心(University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)针对不同种族的男性和女性持续进行的一项大型心脏健康研究。该研究的参与者完成了心脏测试，提供了血液样本和健康信息，并佩戴活动追踪器一周。
The researchers pulled information about more than 1,700 of these participants, excluding any who had heart disease or symptoms of heart failure, such as chest pain or shortness of breath.
They checked the men’s and women’s blood samples for troponins and the readouts from their activity trackers to see how much or little they had moved most days.
Then they made comparisons.
Many of the study participants turned out to be sitters, remaining sedentary for as much as 10 hours or more on most days. Not surprisingly, those men and women rarely exercised.
Some of the men and women did work out, though, usually by walking. They were not exercising a lot, but the more exercise they undertook, the fewer hours they sat, on average. v 不过，有些男性和女性确实锻炼，通常是走路。他们锻炼得不是很多，但他们锻炼得越多，平均坐着的时间就越短。 v And this physical activity, limited as it was, was associated with relatively normal levels of troponin. The people who moved the most tended to have lower amounts of troponin in their blood, although the benefits statistically were slight.
On the other hand, the people who sat for 10 hours or more tended to have above-average troponin levels in their blood. These levels were well below those indicative of a heart attack. But they were high enough to constitute “subclinical cardiac injury,” according to the study’s authors.
This relationship remained strong, even after the researchers controlled for other factors that could have influenced troponin levels, including age, gender, body mass index and cardiac function.
Overall, sitting was more strongly associated with unhealthy troponin levels than exercise was with desirable amounts.
Of course, this was an observational study and can show only that sitting is linked to high troponin, not that it causes troponins to rise.
It also cannot explain how physical stillness might injure cardiac cells.
它也无法解释为什么身体静止会损伤心肌细胞。 v But the impacts are probably indirect, says Dr. James de Lemos, a cardiologist and professor at UT Southwestern Medical Center who oversaw the new study.
不过，负责这项新研究的心脏病专家、德克萨斯大学西南医学中心教授詹姆斯·德莱莫斯博士(James de Lemos)表示，这种影响很可能是间接的。
“Sedentary behavior is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and fat deposition in the heart, all of which can lead to injury to heart cells,” he says.
作者:纽约时报(GRETCHEN REYNOLDS) 翻译：王相宜